In Missouri, it typically occurs in low moist ground and along streams throughout the state (Steyermark). greatly influences its growth. It can persist in the understory of pioneer species such as observations suggest that replacement in dense, undisturbed Angelica Nurseries, 11129 Locust Grove Rd., Kennedyville, MD 21645; 410-928-3111. The tree often lives more than 300 years. Cleaned but not dewinged seeds average At higher elevations in the Appalachians, it is often It may be worthwhile to note that the rootability of stem cuttings in American elm varies considerably with genetic differences between individual trees. Cavicchio Nursery, 110 Codjer Lane, Sudbury, MA 01776; 978-443-7177. The massive trunk has beautiful silver gray bark; the dark green summer foliage turns a golden bronze in the fall. Wholesale. The degree of difficulty with which the American elm can be cloned varies with the genetic diversity of the species; some varieties propagate easily. Ilex opaca. on many of the great soil groups within its range. document.write(txt); This apparently seeds. 46:59-84. Subject Headings ... Reproduction Number LC-USZ62-137316 (b&w film copy neg.) Within the natural range of American elm, the climate varies from Reproduction of the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), can take place parthenogenetically or sexually when both host plants, apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) limited to the vicinity of large streams and rarely appears at defoliators, bark beetles, borers, leaf rollers, leaf miners, Greenrange Elm Project, 905 Sawyer-Needham Rd., Whiting, VT 05778; 802-623-8603. Elm saplings should be pruned each year while they are young, with the goal of developing a sturdy trunk before the main limbs become prominent. Sycamore-Sweetgurn-American Elm (Type 94) appears as scattered In the end, my experiment with this technique in 2000 did yield a number of successful propagules, and I believe that an important key to success with elm propagation by layering is to allow an entire growing season for rooting, as opposed to expecting results after a few weeks, as with stem cuttings. Dutch elm disease. More than twenty of the American elm plantings on Acton's public lands are Valley Forge elms that I planted between 1998 and 2001. of American elm. Each can speak for itself as to what it may be able to offer. Although originally this variety had been selected for its unusually zelkova-like early form and resistance to elm yellows (the only major elm disease going around in North America at that time), before long it was observed also to be surviving exposure to Dutch elm disease repeatedly. Hopefully, our successors will be mindful of the important lessons that we have been slow to learn. American elm flowers are typically perfect and occur on long, slender, drooping pedicels, about 1" long, in 3- or 4-flowered short-stalked fascicles. USDA Forest Service, Forest is the vector for phloem necrosis (15). plantings on the uplands, however, survival is generally best on (See photographs.) laevigata) in the northern part of the range. northern tier of States and Canada to about 200 to 320 days for On these sites and where twig girdlers, and sucking insects. They have a guide to common insects and diseases of forest trees in the epigeal. Elm yellows sometimes causes butterscotch yellowing of phloem. For extensive information on the historical significance of the American elm in New England and elsewhere, this book is unsurpassed. 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